Anything that can go wrong will go wrong, at the worst possible time, all of the time, without fail, when you least expect it. Welcome to the world of Murphy’s Law. It is a very optimistic law, stating if anything can go wrong, it will. If it can’t go wrong, it will go wrong anyway. […]

## Continuity Equation

The continuity equation describes the transport of some quantities like fluid or gas. The equation explains how a fluid conserves mass in its motion. Many physical phenomena like energy, mass, momentum, natural quantities and electric charge are conserved using the continuity equations. This equation provides very useful information about the flow of fluids and its […]

## Avogadro’s Hypothesis

Avogadro built on the work of Gay-Lussac who first noted that gases reacted in simple integer volume ratios (when measured at the same temperature and pressure). Gay-Lussac concluded that this result could be explained if the volumes contained the same number of particles. Chemists found this hypothesis difficult to accept because they reasoned, for example, […]

## Kirchhoff’s Law

Some relationships do exist between voltages and currents under various branches of an electrical circuit. These relationships are identified by the laws of which are known as Kirchhoff’s laws, derived by Guatov Robert Kirchhoff. These laws help in calculating the electrical resistance of a complex network or impedance in case of AC and the current […]

## Ampere’s Law

Let’s explore the meaning of the final Maxwell’s Equation, which is known as the Ampere’s Law. Ampere was a scientist who performed experiments with forces that act on current carrying wires. The experiment was done in the late 1820s around the same time when Faraday was working on his Faraday’s Law. Faraday and Ampere had […]

## Kirchoff’s Second Law

Kirchhoff’s Second Law states that the “net electromotive force around a closed circuit loop is equal to the sum of potential drops around the loop”. It is termed as Kirchhoff’s Loop Rule which is a outcome of electrostatic field which is conservative. The below figure illustrates that the total voltage around a closed loop must […]

## Wiedemann-Franz Law

The Wiedemann-Franz Law is one of the fundamental law in physics. It was discovered in the year 1835 and named after German physicists, Gustav Wiedemann and Rudolph Franz. Gustav Wiedemann discovered that thermal conductivity and the electrical conductivity are approximately have same value at the same temperature for different metals. In this law: Thermal Conductivity […]

## Planck Equation

What is Planck Equation? Max Planck discovered a theory that energy is transferred in the form of chunks called as quanta, assigning as h. The variable h holds the constant value equal to 6.63 x 10-34 J.s based on International System of units and the variable describes the frequency in s-1. The Planck’s law help […]

## Casimir Effect

The Casimir effect in quantum field theory is small physical forces that arise from a quantized field. It is mainly due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Hendrik Casimir, a Dutch Physicists, predicted the Casimir Effect. Casimir Effect can be understood with a typical example of a vacuum in space. According to the […]

## Joule-Thomson Effect

The joule-Thomson effect is the change in fluid’s temperature as it flows from a higher pressure region to a lower pressure. According to thermodynamic principle, the Joule-kelvin effect can be explained best by considering a separate gas packet placed in the opposite flow of direction for restriction. For the gas packet to pass through, the […]