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When large number of data are concerned, then summation is needed quite often. To write a very large number, summation notation is useful.  The sequence [1,2,4,2..] whose value is the sum of the each number in the sequence is summation. In simple words, summation notation helps write a short form for addition of very large number of data. We use this symbol –

We use this symbol –  , called sigma to denote summation. When a sequence is needed to add from left to right, it could run intermediate result in a partial sum, running total or prefix sum.

The form in which the summation notation is used:

\[\large x_{1}+x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4}+x_{5}+……..x_{n}=\sum_{i-n}^{n}x_{i}\]

To make it clear, read what each notation in the summation formula stands for:

summationThis expression is read as “The sum of x sub i from i equals 1 to n”.

Solved Example

Question: Evaluate: $\sum_{x-0}^{4}x^{4}$ 

The expression can be written as:



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