Reasoning is the first section of the IBPS Clerk Main exam. It comprises of 40 questions that carry 50 marks. The idea is to have the knowledge that the candidates are capable of the general ability in intelligence.
What is Reasoning?
Reason is the capability of making sense of things, applying logic, putting facts in place and verifying them. It is mainly associated with the human characteristics like mathematics, science, different languages, etc.
Reasoning is mainly connected to thoughts and human intelligentsia.
Reasoning is generally divided into logical, verbal and non-verbal reasoning.
(1.) Logical Reasoning: – Logical reasoning in terms of using some or the other logic is the process of using a rational, systematic series of steps based on procedures of mathematics and statements that are given in order to reach a conclusion.
Logical reasoning includes:
- Deductive Reasoning: It is a type of reasoning that checks whether the conclusion is apt for a given rule. e.g- When the sun shines bright, the crop gets ripened. Wheat is a crop, therefore: when the sun shines bright, wheat gets ripened.
- Mathematical logic and philosophical logic are the logics that are associated with this type of reasoning.
- Inductive Reasoning: This type of reasoning mainly tries to support the actual determination of the rule. It takes up many examples that are hypothetical in nature and makes a conclusion that forms a precondition in terms of such a rule. e.g.-“The phone rang every time a person called, therefore whenever the phone rang there was always a call.”
- Abductive Reasoning: This type of reasoning gives inference to the best explanation; it selects a convincing set of preconditions. There is a true condition and a rule given and it attempts to select the probable premises that if true, also can support the conclusion which may not be a unique one. e.g. “When the phone rings, there is an incoming call. There is an incoming call. Therefore, the phone might have rung.”
(2.) VERBAL REASONING: – Verbal reasoning stands for the ability to understand and reason using concepts framed in words. The main aim is to evaluate our ability to think in a constructive way. That means not in a sense that includes only fluency, grammar or vocabulary recognition.
Verbal reasoning includes
- Proposition: It is the basic aspect of verbal reasoning. A proposition is a statement that shows facts, judgments or opinion about something. A simple sentence such as “Birds fly in the sky.” is a form of preposition.
- Premise: It is a form of preposition that contains a solution. e.g –“Sam has not brought food and therefore he won’t be able to eat his lunch,” has two premises that form the conclusion that Sam will be hungry.
- Syllogism: A syllogism is an argument that contains premises in order to get the truth. e.g –“Mathew is a man. All men have moustache, therefore Mathew has a moustache.” The validity of the syllogism depends on the truth and facts related to the premises.
- Verbal Analogies: These types of analogies are depended on the comparison between two subjects or concepts based on their relations. e.g – “A dog to a kennel is just like the horse to the stable.”
(3.) NON-VERBAL REASONING: – This is a type of reasoning that includes problem-solving on pictures, diagrams, and shapes apart from words. It revolves around the idea of understanding and analyzing information in a visual manner. It involves in finding the solution to problems without depending upon the language skills.
Reasoning includes questions on the following topics:
- Symbols and their relationships- These types of questions in reasoning consist of series containing symbols and their relationship with each other.
- Arithmetical computation- Arithmetic computation or arithmetic reasoning comprises of questions that are solved using arithmetic properties in mathematics.
- Decision making- This section contains the questions related to making decisions. This happens by providing certain conditions and based on the information given the decisions are needed to be made without assuming anything.
- Verbal and figure classification: In this type of reasoning the questions that are given are in the forms of diagrams. There is a need either to find out the dissimilar object or the diagram that does not refer to the group of the diagrams.
- Verbal and non-verbal: This type of reasoning comprises of the questions regarding the verbal and non-verbal topics in reasoning.
- Analytical functions: These include questions that require our intelligence to solve a given problem.
- Space Visualization: Space Visualization tests are used to assess a person’s ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional figures.
- Judgment: In this type of reasoning there are questions that give a situation and a judgment is needed to be made regarding that particular scenario.
- Blood Relations: This is a type of reasoning that is used to relate with the relations with the family members.
- Assertion: In this kind of reasoning test the candidate’s knowledge is judged by the ability to reason out correctly.
- Seating Arrangement: This is the type of reasoning in which the arrangements of the seats are to be done using some logic. There are two types of seating arrangements, namely 1) Circular Arrangement and 2) Linear Arrangement
- Input- Output: In this section a number of questions are given that are not in the order of their occurrence. The need is to arrange them in the order with accordance to some rules.
- Coding-Decoding: A code is a sequence of information sent to a system. The coding-decoding reasoning test is used to detect the candidate’s ability in order to convert a rule that codes a word and breaks again to convert the message.