Animal cells are the eukaryotic cells having nucleus and membrane-bound organelles without any cell wall. Animal cells are different from plant cells as they don’t have chloroplasts and cell wall. They also have centrioles which are important for cell division process or DNA segregation when the cell undergoes the process of mitosis. Mitosis is the process of dividing a cell.
Parts of the Animal Cell
Cell Membrane – The cell membrane is a thin layer of protein forming the outer covering of cell. These are semi-permeable and allow the materials to move in and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm – It is a jelly-like substance outside the nucleus where the organelles are found. Functions include cell division and glycolysis occur in the cytoplasm.
Golgi Apparatus – It is a sac-like organelle where proteins are modified, sorted and exported to various parts of the cell.
Mitochondria – These are organelles which convert the glucose energy into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.
Ribosome – These are small organelles consisting of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules where protein synthesis is done. This RNA is used in a process known as translation. The translation combines amino acids together in an RNA sequence. More ribosomes will help in synthesizing more proteins.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – It is a vast system of membranous and convoluted sacks that are placed in the cytoplasm of a cell. It is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. These rough ER’s are used to store and transport the material through the cell and produces proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – It transports the material through the cell. Smooth ER consists of enzymes to produce, digest lipids and membrane proteins. It helps in functioning of synthesizing lipids, detoxification of poison and drugs, metabolism of carbohydrates and storage of calcium ions.
Peroxisome – These are single membrane-bound organelle that includes oxidative enzymes for digestion. Also, helps in synthesizing cholesterol.
Nucleus – It acts as the control center of the cell which contains DNA in the form of genes. It is the largest organelle in a cell that consists of different parts like chromosomes, nuclear envelope, and nucleolus.
Vacuole – It is a membrane-surrounded cavity of a cell. It is known as the storage space that is used for storing water, salt, and other important substances. Food vacuoles are the digestive compartment, cellular organelles where food is broken down with the help of hydrolytic enzymes.
Lysosome – These are also known as cell vesicles, round organelle surrounded by a membrane which contains digestive enzymes. Here, digestion of cell nutrients occur. Lysosomes break down into cellular wastes like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Cytoskeleton – It is a structure which is made up of protein providing shape and structure of a cell. Also, it helps in cellular motion with the help of cilia and flagella.
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