Body Movements - Human Body And Its Movements

Movement

Movement is the change in the position of a body part with respect to the whole body. The blinking of the eyes, breathing, eating are all examples of movement. These movements are possible because of joints. Joints are points in our body where two or more parts of our skeleton are connected together. Different joints help our body carry out different activities and movements.

The human body movements get polished as we grow in age. The movement starts from crawling and with the increase in age the person starts walking leading to the movement of the whole organism.

Listed below are a few types of joints and their functions:

Types of Joints

Name Of The Joint Part Of Body Where Found Function
Ball and Socket Joint Hip area, joint of the shoulder The rounded end of one bone fits into the cavity of the other bone. It allows movements in all directions
Pivotal Joint Joins the head and neck Allows the head to swivel around
Hinge Joint Elbow Allows back and forth movement
Fixed Joint Bones in head held with fixed joints Help keep bones intact and provides structure
  • All bones in our body form a framework and provide shape to our body. This framework is called a skeleton.
  • Our hand is made up of several small bones called Carpals.
  • Chest bones and backbone together form the ribcage. We have 12 ribs on each side of our chest. Our backbone consists of 33 small, disk-like bones called vertebrae. Rib Cage protects the internal parts of our body and provides a definite structure.
  • Bones in the shoulder are called shoulder bones and bones in the abdominal region are called pelvic bones.
  • Skull is made up of many bones which are fused together. It protects our brain. Cartilages are also part of our skeletal system and joints of the body. Unlike bones, they are soft and flexible.
  • Muscles are subjected to contraction and relaxation and work in pairs.

Additional Reading: Joints: Types And Examples

Types of Body Movements

The body movements in humans are of the following types:

  • Flexion
  • Lateral Flexion
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Plantarflexion
  • Extension
  • Hyperextension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Transverse Abduction
  • Transverse Adduction
  • RotationLateral Rotation
  • Medial Rotation
  • Supination
  • PronationProtraction
  • Retraction
  • Elevation
  • Depression
  • Reversion
  • Eversion
  • Opposition

Movement In Other Animals

Earthworm

  • Earthworms do not have bones but are made up of several rings joined end to end.
  • It is able to shorten and extend its body with the help of muscles
  • It is able to move through the soil as a result of repeated contractions and expansions
  • Excretes a slimy substance which aids its movement
  • It has many tiny bristles projecting out which are connected with muscles enabling them to get a good grip

Snail

The outer skeleton is called the shell. It is not made up of bones and does not help in movement. The body consists of a head and a thick structure projecting out of the shell, which is the foot. It is made up of strong muscles. Their motion is wavy.

Cockroach

  • They have three pairs of legs and can walk, climb, fly. The body is covered with a hard exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is made up of a number of plates joined together
  • They have 2 pairs of wings attached to the body. They have muscles too which helps them move when they fly.

Fish

The tail and head of a fish are smaller as compared to the middle portion. They are said to have a streamlined body which allows the fish to gain motion and swim.

Birds

The hollow bones and the strong muscular system helps the birds during flight. A bird flaps its wings while flying.

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