Class 11 Syllabus

Course Structure

Biology Syllabus for Class 11 

 

Unit Title Marks
1. Diversity of Living Organisms 7
2. Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals 11
3. Cell: Structure and Function 15
4. Plant Physiology 17
5. Human Physiology (A) – Section for OTBA

Human Physiology (B)

*10+10
Total 70

 

  • Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domain of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy– Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
  • Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
  • Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperm and Angiosperm (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.
  • Salient features and classification of animals- nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
  • Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit, and seed.
  • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).
  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall.
  • Cell organelles– structure and function; Endomembrane system- endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus–nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules–structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes–types, properties, enzyme action.
  • Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Transport in plants:

  • Movement of water, gases, and nutrients; Cell to cell transport– Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water– Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation.
  • Transpiration– Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis.
  • Diffusion of gases. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity.

Photosynthesis:

  • Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Where does photosynthesis take place; How many pigments are involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Respiration: Exchange of gases; Cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations – Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators–auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism

Transport in plants:

  • Movement of water, gases, and nutrients; Cell to cell transport– Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water– Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation.
  • Transpiration– Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis.
  • Diffusion of gases. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity.

Photosynthesis:

  • Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Where does photosynthesis take place; How many pigments are involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Respiration: Exchange of gases; Cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations – Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators–auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism

Practise This Question

Structures present in the cell which carry out specific functions are called___________.