Science plays a crucial role in framing well-defined abilities of affective domains in children. It enlightens the spirit of inquiry and creativity. The concept of atoms and molecules being the building blocks of matter gives it an image, just like Newton’s law of gravitation. The current syllabus is designed around six different themes namely Food, Materials, The World of Living, How Things Work, People and Ideas and Moving Things. Care has been taken to avoid the addition of too many topics and providing comfortable learning structure. The students are required to be exposed to experiences and reasoning which are the true aspects of the subject.
Science Syllabus for class 9 (2016-17)
Time : 3 Hours
|First Term Units||Marks – 90|
|I.||Matter – Its Nature & Behaviour||29|
|II.||Organisation in Living World||18|
|III.||Motion, Force and Work||30|
|V.||Food; Food Production||13|
|Second Term Units||Marks|
|I.||Matter – Its Nature & Behaviour||18|
|II.||Organisation in Living World||26|
|III.||Motion, Force and Work||36|
First Term Units
- Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density. change of state-melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation and sublimation.
Nature of matter
- Elements, compounds, and mixtures. Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
- Cell – Basic Unit of life: Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles; chloroplast, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles.
- Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure and number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System and Organism: Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types of animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line.
- Acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by the graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws: Force and motion, Newton’s laws of motion, the inertia of a body, inertia, and mass, momentum, force, and acceleration.
- Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.
Gravitation: Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, the force of gravitation of the earth, the acceleration due to gravity; weight and mass; free fall.
- Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management.
- Use of fertilizers, manures; protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.
Second Term Units
Particle nature, basic units:
- atoms and molecules.
- Law of constant proportions.
- Atomic and molecular masses.
- Relationship of the mole to the mass of the particles and numbers.
- The chemical formula of common compounds.
Structure of atom: Electrons, protons, and neutrons; Isotopes and isobars.
- Diversity of plants and animals – basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification.
- Hierarchy of categories/groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms, and Angiosperms).
- Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates up to phyla and chordates up to classes).
Health and Diseases:
- Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation.
- Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria, and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programs.
Work, energy, and power:
- Work was done by a force, energy, power.
- kinetic and potential energy.
- The law of conservation of energy.
- Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, the speed of sound, the range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; a reflection of sound; echo and SONAR.
- Structure of the human ear (only auditory aspect).
- Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India.
- Air, water and soil pollution.
- Holes in the ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geochemical cycles in nature: Water, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen.