Plants consist of many parts like root, stem, leaves, fruits, and flowers. Among these, the different shapes, colors and the fragrance of flowers make them the most attractive part of a plant. They make nature colorful and pleasant. We use them for various purposes ranging from decorations, to symbolisms, to cultural and emotional implications. Moreover, a flower is the reproductive unit of a plant.
Morphology of Flowers
Flowers serve a significant function in plants. As the reproductive part, it ensures the continuation of a plant species by the process called reproduction. Generally, it consists of:
- Petal: The brightly colored part which attracts the pollinating agent(such as bees and butterflies). This part is also known as the corolla.
- Sepal: Sepal or calyx is the green colored part beneath the petals in order to protect rising buds.
- Carpel or Gynoecium: The carpel represents the female reproductive system of a flower. It is comprised of three parts- stigma, style, and ovary which are collectively known as Pistil. Stigma is the topmost part where the pollen lands. Then the pollen travels down through the style to the ovary. The ovary contains the ovules where the fertilization takes place and form seeds.
- Stamen or Androecium: The male reproductive organ consists of two parts namely: anther and filament which are usually yellow in color. Anther is a bilobed sac that produces and store pollen whereas filament supports the anther.
- Receptacle: Receptacle is the part which holds floral parts together and a reason for the straight position.
- Peduncle: Peduncle is the stem which supports the inflorescence.
Depending on parts present, a flower can either be a male or a female or both. A typical flower consisting of petals, sepals, stamen, and carpel, is known as a complete flower. However, it is not only a part of fertilization but also a rich source of nectar.
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