Earth is known to have around 3, 00,000 plant species. Like animals, plant life is also dependent on various fundamental necessities for their endurance. Light, water, air, soil,nutrients and suitable climatic conditions are compulsory for growth and other life processes. But every habitat does not provide them with all of these supplies. Therefore, they have to evolve and adopt certain behavior or structural modifications. These physiological, behavioral and morphological patterns differ from region to region as per conditions of that terrain. Let’s see different adaptation in plants.
Adaptation in Plants
Adaptation is the evolution or approaches exhibited by an organism to ensure its survival. It supports life even in bleak conditions. Adaptations are unique to a particular area and these adaptations will not be effective in another terrain.This explains why some plants and animals are unique to a region and why they cannot exist in other habitats. Adaptation in plants in different habitats is given below.
Forests are packed with small grasses, big and tall trees with varying climatic conditions like in deciduous forests. Trees are dominant in such areas and are strong competition for small shrubs and herbs. They cover small plants and hinder the sunlight and absorb nutrients from the soil. In such conditions, ground level plants choose to begin the spring season for their flowering because, during autumn, trees shed their leaves. Some plants climb the branches of trees to get sunlight. Few are adapted to carry out photosynthesis in low light.
Plants which live in water ecosystem like lakes, rivers, ponds, bogs etc. face many problems like less oxygen, light intensity, soil, and nutrients. These are resolved by their flexibility to float in water streams, some develop taller stems out of the water to get light. Food, nutrients, and air are absorbed through modified stems and roots.
Deserts are too dry and hot to imagine life in them. Despite these arid conditions, few plants have adapted to survive there. Succulents are such plants which can store water in their modified stems and leaves. The spines on cacti also help prevent excess water loss. Some have long deep roots which can absorb water from the ground. Some grow short to save energy wasted on growth.
Tundra represents the coldest habitats on earth like Antarctic, Arctic and Alpine regions. Sedges, dwarf shrubs, grasses and certain mosses and lichens are some plant species found in these terrains. The special features of tundra plants include shortness (not more than 12 inches), hairy parts, dark color and big wide flowers. Everyfeaturehasits own boon and help them to get more nutrients from the ground, sunlight and protect them from extreme cold weather.
Another threat for plants is predators or consumers. Since they are the producers, every small to big life depends on them for food or shelter. To prevent this predation, plants developed thorns and spines. Some are even poisonous and irritating.To know more about adaptation in
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