Mitosis is the process in which a cell is divided into two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is also known as somatic cell division because it takes place in the somatic cells.
Features of Mitosis
- In each cycle of cell division, two daughter cells are formed from the parent cell.
- The cell is also known as equational cell division because the chromosome number in the parent cell and daughter cell is the same.
- In plants, mitosis leads to the growth of vegetative parts of the plant like root tip, stem tip, etc.
- Segregation and combination do not occur in this process.
Significance of Mitosis
- Mitosis is responsible for the development of the zygote into an adult.
- The chromosomes are distributed equally to the daughter cells after each cycle.
- It is responsible for a definite shape, and proper growth and development of an individual.
- It maintains the constant number of chromosomes in all body cells of an organism.
- In plants, mitosis helps in the formation of new parts and in the repairing of damaged parts. Mitosis helps in vegetative propagation of crops also.
- Since no recombination and segregation occurs in the process, it helps in maintaining the purity of types.
- It helps in maintaining a balance between the DNA and RNA contents as well the nuclear and cytoplasmic contents of the cell.
- It is responsible for replacing dead and old cells in the animals. Eg., gut epithelium, and blood cells.
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