Plants are one of the most essential living organisms on earth. They are immensely beneficial to both animals and human beings. They produce oxygen which is crucial for the survival of living organisms. Trees provide shelter to animals and are also known for their medicinal benefits. A plant has many parts. Different parts perform different functionalities. The part of the plant that appears above the ground level is called the shoot system while the part of the plant which lies underneath the soil is called the root system.

Plants can be categorized into three types:

  • Herbs
  • Shrubs
  • Trees

Plants have many parts. Different parts of a plant are listed below:

  • Roots
  • Stem
  • Leaves
  • Flowers
  • Fruits

Stems arise vertically upwards to the ground. Initially, stems are usually weak and cannot stand straight. It eventually grows to become the toughest part of the plant called the trunk. The trunk is covered by a thick outer covering known as the bark.

Characteristics Of Stems

  • Stems arise from the plumule
  • Forms the basis of the shoot system which furthermore gives rise to leaves, flowers and fruits
  • Stems are negatively geotropic and hydrotropic(away from the ground)
  • The region on stems which gives rise to leaves is called the node
  • The region between two nodes is called internode
  • They bear buds such as vegetative buds and floral buds
  • The bark of trees are brown in colour and younger stems are green in colour

Functions Of Stems

A stem carries out a number of functions essential for various processes such as photosynthesis.

  • Holds the plant perpendicular to the ground
  • Carries water and minerals from roots to all parts of the plants
  • Carries back prepared food from the leaves to all other parts of the plants
  • Orients plants in such a way that leaves are exposed to enough sunlight to carry out photosynthesis
  • They help bear the flowers and fruits produced
  • Helps in storing food
  • Protects Xylem and phloem allowing them to perform their functions.
  • In most desert plants, stem carries out the functions of leaves
  • Provides a definite framework and structure to a plant which later develops into a tree.

For more information on different parts of a plant, register at Byju’s

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