Types Of Reproduction
Reproduction is one of the characteristic features of living entities. It is the biological process through which new individuals are born as a result of the transfer of genetic material from parent to offspring. The offspring are hence born exhibits similar characteristics as parents. Each entity exists due to this fundamental process of reproduction and hence it is required to continue the chain of life.
Reproduction is carried out through two modes:
- Asexual reproduction
- Sexual reproduction
It is a primitive form of reproduction carried out by single entities through which one individual gives rise to multiple offspring without the involvement of another parent. Hence there is no event of mating in asexual reproduction. Thus gametes are not formed since the new individual contains genomes from only one parent. This is the reason why there is little to no variation as a result of asexual reproduction. Also, it is carried out a faster pace compared to the sexual mode of reproduction.
Asexual reproduction, in turn, is carried out through one of these modes:
- Spore formation
- Vegetative propagation
A more significant form of reproduction is the sexual mode of reproduction. It is a process which requires mating of the male and female sex cells to form the zygote as a result of the fertilization process. This cell in future matures to become the new individual. Most of the animals and plants reproduce sexually. As compared to asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction is complex and is a lengthy process since it involves two parents. This majorly contributes to the variation in offspring as the genome of the new individual contains a set of chromosomes from each parent.
This mode of reproduction occurs through multiple stages of division and growth, which are:
- The pre-fertilization stage
- Fertilization stage
- The post-fertilization stage
Advantages Of Sexual And Asexual Reproduction
Listed below are a few advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
- There is great diversity within a species
- There is an intrinsic level of resistance to diseases throughout the species
- Evolutionary advancements can be observed due to variations genetically
- Eliminates bad genes from a population
- Requires minimum energy requirements
- Occurs at a faster pace compared to sexual reproduction
- Can take place in various environments
- A mate is not required for reproduction
- Entities mature rapidly and offered with a defensive mechanism
- With this type of reproduction, crop losses can be stabilized
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