“Biotechnology is a wide discipline that harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies that help in improving the health and lives of the people.”


What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is the field that exploits living organisms to make technological advances in various fields for the sustainable development of mankind. It has its applications in the medical as well as agricultural sectors. The biological processes of living organisms have been used for more than 6000 years to make essential products such as bread, cheese, alcohol, etc.

Let us have a look at the various types and applications of biotechnology in various fields.

Also Read: Biotechnology Principles

Types of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is divided into the following types:

Medical Biotechnology

Medical biotechnology involves the use of living cells to develop technologies for the improvement of human health. It involves the use of these tools to find more efficient ways of maintaining human health. It also helps in the study of DNA to identify the causes of genetic disorders and methods to cure them.

Vaccines and antibiotics have been developed with the help of medical biotechnology that is essential for human health. Several plants are genetically engineered to produce antibodies with the help of biotechnology.

Agricultural Biotechnology

This field deals with the development of genetically modified plants by introducing the gene of interest in the plant. This, in turn, helps in increasing the crop yield.

Various pest-resistant crops such as Bt-cotton and Bt-brinjal are created by transferring the genes from Bacillus thuringiensis into the plants.

The animals with the most desirable characteristics are bred together to obtain the offspring with the desired traits.

Also Read: Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Applications Of Biotechnology

Following are the important applications of biotechnology:

Nutrient Supplementation

Nutrients can be infused into food in situations of aid. e.g., Golden rice is prepared by the infusion of beta-carotene into the rice.

Abiotic Stress

Biotechnology helps in the production of crops that can handle abiotic stress such as cold, drought, salinity, etc. In the regions with extreme climatic conditions, such crops have proved beneficial in withstanding the harsh climate.

Industrial Biotechnology

Biotechnology involves the production of alcohol, detergents, cosmetic products, etc. It involves the production of biological elements and cellular structures for numerous purposes.

Strength Fibres

Spider webs have materials with the strongest tensile strength. The genes from the spiders have been picked up through biotechnological techniques and infused in goats to produce silk proteins in their milk. This helps in the production of silk easily.


Biotechnology is widely used in energy production. Due to the depletion of natural resources, there is a need to find an alternative source. Such fuels are produced by using biotechnology tools. These are environment friendly and do not release any greenhouse gas.


Biotechnology is applied in the development of pharmaceuticals that had proven problematic when produced through conventional means due to purity concerns.

Also Read: Applications Of Biotechnology

This is how biotechnology is a boon to society. To know more about biotechnology class 12 topics such as what is biotechnology, its types and applications, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference.