We find different types of rice, pulses, vegetables and fruits which we eat in our day to day life. These are obtained from different plants. But do you know how are they grown? These are obtained by the production and harvesting of crops. Crops are of plants grown and cultivated together at one place on a large scale. Depending on the type, we can decide the crop production and management methods.
Classification of crops:
Depending on various factors, there can be different types of crops in India :
- On the basis of cropping season :Different crops can be classified on the basis of the season. If the crops are cultivated in rainy season mainly from June to September in India, then they are Kharif crop but if they are grown in winter (October to march)season, they are classified as Rabi crop. The crops grown between March and June are known as zaid.
- On the basis of their uses: Depending upon the uses of crops, they can also be classified as farm crop, commercial crop, or horticulture crops.
- On the basis of their lifespan: The time interval for which the plant survives can also be the deciding factor for the classification of crops. According to this they can be classified as annuals, biennials and perennials.
Practices of crop production:
Crop production involves several steps which need to be performed by farmers during the period of time. These steps starts from the preparation of soil and ends once the storage of crops is done. In between, we involve certain steps which are necessary for the appropriate growth of plant. These steps are shown below:
Agricultural equipments used in the preparation of soil:
- Made up of wood
- Ploughshare – Triangular iron strip
- Ploughshaft – Long log of wood
- One end is attached to handle and the other one rests on bulls neck.
- It removes weeds and loosens the soil.
- A long rod of iron or wood with a strong bent blade-like iron piece at its one end.
- It is generally pulled by animals like bulls. cows etc.
- Cultivator: Cultivation of crop is done using tractor driven cultivator.
Difference between Fertilizers and Manures:
Traditional method of irrigation:
In this method, irrigation is done manually. Farmers pull out water from lakes, wells or canals manually and then it is transferred to the farming fields. This method of irrigation is cheap but it is lesser efficient than modern methods used.
Modern method of irrigation:
It is more sophisticated and machine intensive method. This method is more efficient than traditional method of irrigation. Here rains are no longer the controlling force for irrigation.
Above, various steps of crop production were mentioned and explained. These steps are necessary as they provide a healthy growth to plants. In some places, now also, traditional farming methods are practiced while in most of the areas modern farming approaches is found.
From this discussion, students would be able to realise the importance of producing crops in an efficient manner. However, to reinforce what they have learned, it would be ideal for them to answer some questions like the ones given here- NCERT solutions for crop production and management.