Electronegativity of an element can be defined as the ability of an atom to attract the shared pair electrons in a covalent compound towards itself. In this complete transfer of electron from one atom to another atom does not take place, only limited movement of electron towards the more electronegative atom happens whereas in electron gain enthalpy the electron is completely absorbed by one of the atoms in a chemical bonding. In the case of electronegativity, partial negative charge (δ–) is created on the atom which attracts the electron towards itself and a partial positive charge(δ+) is created in the atom from which the electron is little far away.
Electronegativity depends on the following factors:
We have about 118 elements, which is a huge number to remember the electronegativity of each element. For that we can study the series shown below that will help in memorizing the electronegativity of elements. Nitrogen and chlorine have almost similar electronegative value. Fluorine is the most electronegative element and metals are the least electronegative element.
In several books, we find formulas like Pauling scale of electronegativity and Mulliken scale of electronegativity to find the electronegativity of an element, but it is least important as we are never asked to find the exact value of electronegativity of any compound. Halogens are the elements which have the highest electronegativity and alkali metals with least electronegativity.
Metallic and non-metallic character: Metals are the one which lose electron easily whereas non-metals are the one which gain electron easily. For example: Out of sodium, magnesium and aluminium, sodium will lose one electron easily as it has only electron to lose to obtain noble gas configuration whereas magnesium and aluminium have 2 & 3 electrons respectively.
Metallic character decreases while non-metallic character increases on moving left to right in a period.
Chemical reactivity: Elements in the extreme left of the periodic table reacts with the elements in the extreme right of the periodic table very easily. This is due to the low ionization enthalpy of extreme left side elements and high electron gain enthalpy of extreme right side elements.
This was just a brief layout about the trends of various properties in the periodic table. To know more about various properties of elements and their trend in periodic table watch the video.
|CBSE Related Links|
|UGC Net Books||Science Question Bank For Class 10|
|Class 4 Maths Worksheets||Working Models For Science Exhibition For Class 8|
|Government Question Papers For 7Th Class 2017||6Th CBSE Maths|
|9Th Standard Question Paper||Soil Forming Processes|
|Maths Sample Paper 12||Chemistry Practical Experiments|
|NCERT Related Articles|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 12||NCERT Solutions for Class 11||NCERT Solutions for Class 10|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths||NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths||NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics||NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics||NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry||NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry||NCERT Solutions for Class 6|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology||NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology||NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Maths|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 9||NCERT Solutions for Class 8||NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths||NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Maths||NCERT Solutions for Class 4|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science||NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science||NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Maths|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 5||NCERT Solutions for Class 7||NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Maths|
|NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Science||NCERT Solutions for Class 5 Maths||NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science|
|NCERT Solutions||NCERT Books||NCERT Solutions for Class 5 Science|