Every season would last for about three months and has weather conditions that are totally different. It is a well known fact that night would be usually cold and days would be warm during the season of spring. During the season of summer the days would be hot and nights would be warm. During the season of autumn both the days and nights would tend to be cooler just similar to the ones like spring season which would then lead to cold days and nights of winter.
The changes in the seasons are caused by the changes in the sunlight availability in a particular region on Earth and has an impact on the temperature of that region.Let us look on how to make a model of Earth and Sun positions during the solstice of summer.
- Bamboo skewers (2 Nos, 12 inch)
- Styrofoam ball (4 inch)
- Styrofoam ball (6 inch)
- Modeling clay (Lemon size piece)
- Black marker
- Paints (acrylic yellow and black)
- Piece of white (22 by 22 inch)
- Poster board
How to make
- Try to insert the bamboo skewer through the Styrofoam ball center carefully
- You could make a ball out of clay from each peice by dividing the clay in half. By using one of the balls of clay, try making a stand by pressing the clay ball against a table. Afterwards, insert the pointed edge of the skewer that has been inserted through the large ball into the stand of clay .You can continue doing the same with the second clay piece and the skewer that has been inserted through the small ball.
- Use the paintbrush to color the large ball in yellow as it is the model of sun.
- You could use the marker for drawing a line around the ball that would be halfway between the topside and bottom side. This line is marked to show earth’s equator.
- You can draw a second line across the ball by beginning from 1 cm to the skewer’s left which would be the top of the ball and finishing at 1 cm of skewer’s right at its bottom. This line would be the representation of the boundary between day and night on Earth.
- Try using the brush to paint the boundary line showing day/night on the left side with black color. This is the model for earth.
- Try using the measuring stick and the pencil to draw diagonal lines on the poster board from nearby corners (two) to the center of the opposite side . Try cutting along the lines while trying to keep the large triangle centre.
- You could use the marker for printing the title “ Summer Solstice : Northern Hemisphere”on the poster board. Below the card title, try drawing the Earth’s position in the form of a diagram in its orbit around the Sun.
- Erect the Earth model just about 3 inches away from the bottom corner (left) of the poster board triangle. Make the protractor to stand in the clay sand with a vertical skewer in the line with 90 0 on it as the angle reading. After this, you could tilt the skewer 231/2 0 to the right side.
- Place the model of the sun to the right side of the model of earth while ensuring it is about 3 inches from the corner right of the poster board triangle.
From the above working model, you would have created a model of the solstice of summer in the Northern Hemisphere. This is because the axis of earth is tilted as per the sun’s direction on the solstice of summer as the rays of the sun would hit the tropic of cancer directly. While the earth rotates, the Northern Hemisphere receives sunlight for a long. Thus it creates the day which is the longest in the year.