Periodic Table of Elements

All the chemical elements discovered till now is placed in a periodic table to simplify the study of elements. In our daily life, we like materials to be arranged in a systematic pattern. For example, an arrangement of books and clothes in a cupboard in a definite pattern, attendance register, car parking area, etc. All these are arranged in some logical order or groups. In attendance register, the names are arranged in alphabetical order. Most of the times randomness and chaos lead to confusion, inefficiency and loss of productivity. A human brain is designed to perceive patterns and ordered arrangements more efficiently as compared to random data.

After various researches, scientists began to discover more and more elements due to which the study of elements became a complex process. These elements were formed long back during the big bang explosion. The discovery of these elements implies the scientific verification of the elements. An element is the simplest unit of which everything in this universe is made. To ease the study of elements scientists started arranging elements in a tabular form known as the periodic table.

Periodic Table

Periodic Table

What is a Periodic Table?

Let us first understand the meaning of the word ‘periodic’ and ‘table’ individually. Periodic means an occurrence of an event at a particular interval of time. For example: If it is Monday today, then the eighth day from today will again be Monday. Table means a set of systematic arrangement of substances in columns and rows. So, the periodic table of elements is an arrangement of elements in a repetitive manner based on certain properties.

Previously chemists did not know much about the elements as we do now. Studies about the history of periodic table has revealed that scientists classified elements on the basis of various criteria like density, Atomic Mass, color, hardness, conductivity, etc. to arrange the elements in a tabular form. Later on, the periodic table was developed on the basis of the atomic number of elements which is the most suitable tabular form and is known as the modern periodic table.The chemical elements arranged in the same column are said to be in the same group. Periods are the rows in the periodic table.

In the left most side of periodic table we have Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, and Francium. These elements are highly reactive and explode when reacted with water. They are also good conductors of electricity and are known as alkali metals. Similarly, in the right most part of the periodic table we have elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon) that are known as the noble gases. These elements are named as noble gas because they don’t react with other elements and are highly stable. All elements in the periodic table are arranged on the basis of atomic number showing similar properties in the group or periods.

Practise This Question

Which one of these group 14 elements has largest atomic radius?