Overpopulation Essay

Overpopulation is the state whereby the human population rises to an extent exceeding the carrying capacity of the ecological setting. This situation occurs when the number of people exceeds that of the optimum population, and the standard of living tends to decline. Overpopulation is very common in the developing countries like India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Russia etc., and these also are treated as overpopulated countries. This essay on overpopulation will help students understand the problem of overpopulation and what measures can be taken to control it.

Students can also go through the CBSE Essays to get the list of essay topics. It helps them in improving their writing skills. Moreover, they can participate in various essay writing competitions conducted in the schools.

Consequences of Overpopulation

Overpopulation takes place when the rate of population growth is much higher than that of the development of resources in an area. The rapid growth of the world’s population over the past one hundred years results from a difference between the birth rate and death rate. The current rate of population growth is now a significant burden to human well-being.

The situation of overpopulation displays the socio-economic characteristics such as high unemployment, low incomes, low standards of living, high population density, malnutrition and famine. Overpopulation leads to urbanisation which destroys natural habitats and reinforces carbon dioxide emissions. It ultimately causes climate change and global warming. Food scarcity, shortage of water, lack of job opportunities and inadequate education are the results of overpopulation.

Overpopulation is regarded as one of the biggest threats to the environment. People use fossil fuels to power their machinery; population growth means higher demand for gas, oil, and coal. When these fuels are burned, more carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, leading to global warming. Moreover, the increased population means more consumption of non-renewable resources, which will cause conflict for future generations.

Measures to Control Overpopulation

Despite India’s improvement in agriculture and improved farming industry, the increasing population lowered India’s chances for an acceptable standard of living. Effective population control measures are the need of the hour. By spreading the knowledge and making the people aware of the negative effects of overpopulation, the problem can be resolved. Various public campaigns must be taken out in public, and awareness must be spread for family planning and to adopt the birth control measures.

The communication media like television, radio and newspaper are good means to propagate the benefits of the planned family to the uneducated and illiterate people, especially in the rural and backward areas of the country. The government should give various types of incentives to the people to adopt birth control measures. Monetary incentives and other facilities like leave and promotion can be extended to the working class, which adopts small family norms. Another method to control overpopulation is to provide education and employment to women, as women’s empowerment play a crucial role in determining fertility levels. The problem of overpopulation can be solved when we are able to equally distribute the natural resources and financial means to maintain sustainability by keeping in mind the future generation.


Population growth is a contributing factor to many types of environmental stresses. The role of increasing population size is a major force driving the fast depletion of natural resources. To control this, people should understand the problem of overpopulation. They should become aware of the problems that are being created due to overpopulation. Also, they have to start using birth control methods and contraceptives to limit the fertility rate. Moreover, the government should conduct family planning programmes, especially in rural areas, to educate people.

Students must have found this Overpopulation essay useful for improving their essay writing skills. They can get the study material and latest update on CBSE/ICSE/State Board/Competitive Exams, at BYJU’S.

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