Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring:

The standard form of a quadratic expression is \(ax^2~+~bx~+~c \)

Consider a Quadratic expression \( x^2~+~5x~+~6\)

\(x^2\)

Figure 1 Area of a square of side x

Similarly, x can be visualized as a rectangle with length x units and breadth as 1 unit. So, 5x would be the area of 5 such rectangles stacked together. This is represented as shown:

Figure 2

This figure above represents a “shape” with total area \( (x^2~+~5x) \)

Figure 3

This figure still represents \((x^2~+~5x)\)

Now, the constant term ‘6’ can be represented as a rectangle with sides 6 units and 1 unit or as a rectangle with one side as 3 units and other as 2 units. While factorization it must be noted that the factors of the constant term must add equally to the coefficient of x.

Figure 4.1 Factorization of constant term 6

Figure 4.2 Factorization of constant term 6

We can fit the figure shown by Fig 4.2 neatly in the above figure, which would then look like:

Figure 5

The area of this rectangle can be given by (x+2)(x+3), which is our original expression \(x^2~+~5x~+~6\)

Any polynomial expression which contains equality sign becomes an equation. So, when this expression \((x^2~+~5x~+~6)\)

\(x^2~+~5x~+~6~=~0\)

⇒ (x + 2)(x + 3) = 0

⇒ x = -2 or x = -3

If the value of x becomes equal to -2 or -3 in the above equation, then the equation becomes 0, which are required roots of given quadratic equation.

Graphs of Quadratic Equations:

The graphs of quadratic equations are represented using parabolas. For any equation y = \(ax^2\)

Case i) a > 0

This would represent an upward facing parabola and depending upon value of a, the concavity of the graph or the rate of increase or decrease of function is affected. Simply, if a decreases, graph opens up and vice –versa.

Consider y = \(100x^2\)

Figure 6 Graph of Quadratic Polynomial

Now, if a is increased or decreased, say a = 10 and a = 1000 then graphically it would be represented as:

Figure 7 Transformation of Quadratic Functions

Similarly if a is negative then, a downward facing parabola is obtained and concavity depends upon value of a.

Figure 8 Transformation of Quadratic Functions

To shift the graph horizontally changes are done in x and for vertical shifting, changes are done in y.

The equation, y = \(100(x~-~2)^2\)

Figure 9

Similarly, y + 2 = \(x^2\)

Figure 10

Thus by using graphs and by visualization, quadratic equations can be understood in a better way.

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