**Physical World**Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Fotces in nature, conservation laws; Examples of gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces from daily-life experiences (qualitative description only)**Units and Measurements**Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

– Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications

**Motion in a Straight Line –**– Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, Velocity Time and Position-time graphs. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment)
**Motion in a Plane –**Scalar and vector quantities; Position and Displacement Vectors, general Vectors and their notations; Equality of Vectors, Multiplication of Vectors by a Real Number; Addition and Subtraction of Vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors

– Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion

**Laws of Motion –**Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a line.- Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication
**Dynamics of uniform circular motion:**Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road)

**Work, Energy and Power-**Work done by a constant force and a variable force; Kinetic energy, Work-energy theorem, Power- Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
- Different forms of energy in nature, Mass-energy equivalence (qualitative idea only)

**System of Particles and Rotational Motion**Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion- Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod
- Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions
- Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Examples of Binary system in nature (Binary Stars, Earth-moon system, diatomic molecules).

**Gravitation**Keplar’s laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.- Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth
- Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites

**Mechanical Properties of Solids**Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio; elastic energy**Mechanical Properties of Fluids**Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.- Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity.Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications
- Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

**Kinetic theory of gases-**assumptions, concept of pressure, Kinetic energy and temperature; mean, rms and most probable speed, degrees of freedom, law of wquipartition of energy, concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.**Thermodynamics**Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes**Second law of thermodynamics:**reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.**Kinetic Theory**Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.

**Oscillations**Periodic motion – time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period

Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance

**Waves**Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.