# Syllabus for Class 12th- PHYSICS

#### Electric Charges and Fields

• Electric Charges
• Conservation of charge, Coulombâ€™s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution
• Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field
• Electric flux, statement of Gaussâ€™s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

#### Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

• Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges
• Equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field
• Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor

#### Current Electricity

• Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current
• Ohmâ€™s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity
• Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors, series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance
• Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel
• Kirchhoffâ€™s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge
• Potentiometer – Principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell

#### Moving Charges and Magnetism

• Concept of magnetic field, Oerstedâ€™s experiment
• Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
• Ampereâ€™s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron
• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field
• Moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter

#### Magnetism and Matter

• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
• Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earthâ€™s magnetic field and magnetic elements
• Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples
• Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, Permanent magnet

#### Electromagnetic Induction

• Electromagnetic induction; Faradayâ€™s laws, induced emf and current
• Lenzâ€™s Law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual induction

#### Alternating Current

• Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage
• Reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance
• Power in AC circuits, watt-less current
• AC generator and transformer

#### Electromagnetic Waves

• Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only)
• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses

#### Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

• Ray Optics, Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula
• Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications
• Optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, Lensmakerâ€™s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror
• Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
• Scattering of light – blue color of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
• Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers

#### Wave Optics

• Wave optics- Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts
• Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light
• Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarization, plane polarized light Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids

#### Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

• Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenardâ€™s observation
• Einsteinâ€™s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light
• Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation
• Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained)

#### Atoms

• Alpha-particle scattering experiment
• Rutherfordâ€™s model of atom
• Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum

#### Nuclei

• Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones
• Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law
• Mass-energy relation, mass defect
• Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number
• Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion

#### Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

• Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
• Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier
• Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator
• Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals
• Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)

#### Communication Systems

• Elements of a communication system (block diagram only)
• Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium
• Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication
• Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation
• Basic ideas about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS)

#### Practise This Question

The diameter of aperature of a plano convex lens is 6 cm and its maximum thickenss is 3 mm.  If the velocity of light in the material of lens is 2×108ms1, calculate the focal length of the lens
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