Aspartic Acid

Aspartic Acid

Aspartic acid is also called as aspartate amino acids that needed for the biosynthesis of proteins. It is one of the two acidic amino acids. It consists a α-carboxylic acid group, α-amino groups, and CH2 COOH side chain.

Aspartic Acid Formula

The formula for aspartic acid is:

C4H7NO4

Aspartic Acid Structure

It was first discovered by Auguste – Arthur Plisson and Ossian Henry in the year 1827. It was derived by boiling the base of asparagus juice.

Aspartic Acid

Forms

Aspartic acid is available in two forms namely:

  • D-aspartic acid
  • L-aspartic acid

L-aspartic acid can be directly injected into proteins whereas D-aspartic acid has limited biological roles. These are prepared by enzymatic synthesis or chemical synthesis. DL- aspartic acid can also be prepared and it known as a racemic mixture.

Metabolism

Aspartate is not essential for mammals as it is being produced from oxaloacetate. It is also produced from citrulline and ornithine in the urea cycle. In microorganisms and plants, aspartate is the precursor to many essential amino acids like threonine, methionine, lysine, and isoleucine. Aspartate is the source for asparagine which is derived via transamidation. This can be expressed as

-O2C CH(NH2) CH2 CO2– + GC (O)NH3 + O2CCH(NH2)CH2CONH3+ + GC(O)O

Biological roles

Aspartate is a metabolite in the urea cycle and participates actively in gluconeogenesis. It carries equivalents which are useful for interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate.

Neurotransmitter

Aspartate also helps in stimulation of NMDA receptors weakly. It is not as strong as the amino acid L-glutamate amino acid.

Sources

It can be synthesized by human beings through the metabolic process and hence it is not an essential acid. It is present in:

  • Vegetable sources: oat flakes, sprouting seeds, asparagus, avocado, sugar beets, and molasses.
  • Animal sources: luncheon meats, wild game, oysters, sausage meat and much more.
  • Dietary supplements
    The sweetener aspartame ( Canderel and Nutrasweet)

Chemical synthesis

This acid can be chemically synthesized. Racemic aspartic acid can be chemically produced from diethyl sodium phthalimide malonate.

Synthesis of carbamoyl aspartic acid

Synthesis of carbamoyl aspartic acid

Aspartic Acid Uses

  • Aspartic acid combines with other amino acids and forms compounds responsible for the  taking in & removal of toxins in the bloodstream.
  • Aspartic acid helps in functioning of the neuroendocrine system by aiding in the secretion of prolactin, luteinizing hormone and growth hormones.
  • Chronic fatigue can be avoided by avoiding low levels of aspartic acids.
  • Aspartic acid helps to attain a better liver health as it helps to remove excess ammonia.
  • The transport of minerals across the intestinal linings.
  • It aids in the function of RNA and DNA.
  • Aspartic acid increases the production of antibodies.

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Practise This Question

The hybrid orbitals are less effective in forming stable bonds than the pure atomic orbitals.