Organic Chemistry Reactions

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Reactions

We are sometimes unknowingly involved in various chemical reactions that happen in our daily lives, and in fact, these reactions are much important as they play a vital role in this whole of the universe. In the field of chemistry, organic chemistry reactions have a large scope when studied in detail. There are said to be many types of reactions coming from this area such as elimination reactions, substitution, addition, condensation, reduction, dehydration, oxidation and hydrolysis reactions.

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry reactions are reactions that occur between organic compounds. Let us study in detail about these different types of reactions and their products.

Types of  Organic Chemistry Reactions

  1. Oxidation reaction:

    In this kind of chemical reaction, oxidation occurs by addition of oxygen atoms or by the loss of electrons. This type of reaction commonly takes place in various life processes such as photosynthesis, combustion, respiration, rusting, etc. Consider the example of the reaction where magnesium metal reacts with oxygen forming magnesium oxide which is an oxidation reaction.

2Mg  + O2 ——–> 2MgO

  1. Reduction Reaction:

    Reduction reaction involves the gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen atoms in a chemical reaction. In general, the decrease in the oxidation number of the organic compound is termed a Reduction process. Consider the following example of the reaction between magnesium oxide and carbon for the process of reduction.

                                                          MgO   +  C ——–> Mg  + CO

  1. Hydrolysis reaction:

    In this type of reaction, the polymers are broken down into their monomers by the addition of water. In general, the word hydrolysis means the reaction of an element with water. The typical example for Hydrolysis is the reaction of salts of a weak base or weak acid with water. Here water gets decomposed to hydroxyl and hydrogen ions. One more example is the hydrolysis of an ester. The following reaction shows the process.

                           CH3COOCH3  + H2O ——–> CH3COOH   + CH3OH

    The reaction of methyl acetate with water produces a compound named Esther by the process of hydrolysis.

  1. Condensation reaction:

    A Condensation reaction is a process that produces two compounds water and the other as ammonia. In general, the reaction that produces acid anhydrides is termed as the condensation reaction. For example, the acetic acid reacts with water forming an acid anhydride.

                                                 2 CH3COOH ——–> (CH3CO)2O + H2O

  1. Polymerization reaction:

    A polymerization reaction is a process that involves the combination of two or more pure monomers forming large polymers. This process is called as Polymerization. There are two types of polymerization reactions namely-  chain-reaction and step-reaction.

  1. Substitution reaction:

    This type of reaction is also called as single displacement or replacement reaction. It is a reaction where a single atom or a group of atoms or molecules are replaced by another group of atoms or molecules. Consider the below reaction-

                                                          A  + BC ——–> AB  +   C

                Substitution reactions can be either electrophilic or nucleophilic in nature.

  1. Addition reaction:

    In addition reactions, two or more molecules combine to form a large single molecule. This type of reaction occurs only between two chemical compounds which have multiple bonds. It is opposite to that of the elimination reaction in organic chemistry.

  1. Combination Reactions:

    A combination reaction is a process where two different elements combine to form a chemical compound. This is the same as the process of redox reactions. For example-

                                                                   A   +  B ——–> AB

  1. Decomposition Reactions:

    This is a reverse process to that of the combination reaction. The decomposition reaction is a process where a single chemical compound decomposes into two different elements. For example-

                                                               AB ——–> A   +  B

  1. Combustion Reactions:

    Combustion reactions are those reactions which generate heat and light. The other name for burning is nothing but Combustion. In this type of reaction, the chemical compound is burnt in the presence of oxygen producing carbon-dioxide and water as the by-products. Consider the below example-

                                                    CxHy +    O2 ——–> CO2     +   H2O

The other reaction occurring in the process of organic synthesis includes Aldol Friedel-craft reaction, Cannizzaro reaction, Rosamund reduction, Lucas test, Victor-Meyer test, Gabriel Phthalimide synthesis, Clemmenson reduction, Wolf-Kishner reduction, Claisen reaction, etc.

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Practise This Question

Aqueous solution of HCl has the pH = 4. Its molarity would be