Anti-tank Guided Missile Test-fired

  • Amogha-1, an indigenously-developed second generation, Anti-Tank Guided Missile having a range of 2.8 km, was successfully test-fired at Babina Army Range, Madhya Pradesh recently.
  • This is the first-ever design and developmental effort in respect of missiles by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), Hyderabad, according to a BDL press release.
  • Two missiles were fired on September 10 and both have hit the target placed at 2.6 km and 2.8 km respectively. Both the flights were without any deviation from the designed path profile and met all design parameters.

NASA probe spots ‘global’ ocean on Saturn’s moon Enceladus  


  • A ‘global’ ocean containing a vast liquid water reservoir lies beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s geologically active moon Enceladus, according to new research using data from NASA’s Cassini mission.
  • Researchers found the magnitude of the moon’s very slight wobble, as it orbits Saturn, can only be accounted if its outer ice shell is not frozen solid to its interior, meaning a global ocean must be present.
  • The finding implies the fine spray of water vapour, icy particles and simple organic molecules Cassini has observed coming from fractures near the moon’s South Pole is being fed by this vast liquid water reservoir.
  • Previous analysis of Cassini data suggested the presence of a lens-shaped body of water, or sea, underlying the moon’s South Polar Region.
  • The new results – derived using an independent line of evidence based on Cassini’s images – confirm this to be the case.
  • “This was a hard problem that required years of observations, and calculations involving a diverse collection of disciplines, but we are confident we finally got it right,” said Peter Thomas, a Cassini imaging team member at Cornell University, New York, and lead author of the paper.
  • Cassini scientists analysed more than seven years’ worth of images of Enceladus taken by the spacecraft, which has been orbiting Saturn since mid-2004.

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