E-governance is an important aspect of today’s governance. It is, therefore, a major topic in polity and governance for the UPSC exam. Aspects of it are also concerned with the science and technology of the IAS syllabus. In this article, you will read about e-governance.
Implementation of e-Governance is a very complex process mandating provisioning of hardware and software, networking, process re-engineering and management of change. Taking into account the lessons learned from previous experiences and the experience from successful e-Governance applications, the approach and methodology adopted for NeGP contains the following factors:
i. Common Support Infrastructure: NeGP implementation involves setting up of common and support IT infrastructure like State Wide Area Networks (SWANs), State Data Centres (SDCs), Common Services Centres (CSCs) and Electronic Service Delivery Gateways.
ii. Governance: Satisfactory arrangements to monitor and coordinate the implementation of NeGP under the direction of competent authorities have also been put in place. The programme is also concerned with laying down standards and policy guidelines, giving technical support, doing capacity building, Research & Development, etc. DIT is required to adequately strengthen itself and various institutions like NIC, STQC, CDAC, NISG, etc., to play these roles effectively.
iii. Centralized Initiative, Decentralized Implementation: e-Governance is being propagated by a centralised initiative to the extent necessary to ensure citizen-centric orientation, to realise the objective of inter-operability of various e-Governance applications and to ensure optimal usage of ICT infrastructure and resources while facilitating a decentralised implementation model. It also aims at identifying successful projects and replicating them with required customisation wherever needed.
iv. Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) model is to be adopted wherever feasible to expand the resource pool without compromising on the security aspects. v. Integrative Elements: Adoption of unique identification codes for citizens, property and businesses is to be encouraged to enable integration and avoid ambiguity.
v. Programme Approach at the National and State levels: For implementation of the NeGP, various Union Ministries/Departments and State Governments are involved. Taking into account the multiple number of agencies involved and the need for overall aggregation and integration at the national level, NeGP is being implemented as a programme, with well-defined roles and responsibilities of each agency involved. For facilitating this, appropriate programme management structures have also been put in place.
vi. Facilitatory role of DIT: DIT is the facilitator and catalyst for the implementation of NeGP by various Ministries and State Governments and also provides technical assistance. It serves as a secretariat to the Apex Committee and assists it in managing the programme. DAR&PG’s responsibility is towards Government Process Re-engineering and Change Management, which are desired to be realised across all government departments. Planning Commission and Ministry of Finance allocate funds for NeGP through Plan and Non-plan budgetary provisions and lay down appropriate procedures in this regard.
vii. Ownership of Ministries: Under the NeGP, various MMPs are owned and spearheaded by the concerned line Ministries. In case there are any ongoing projects which fall in the MMP category, they would be suitably enhanced to align them with the objectives of NeGP. For major projects like Bharat Nirman, Rural Employment Guarantee Schemes etc., the line ministries concerned are advised to make use of e-Governance as also automation techniques from the inception stage. States have been given the flexibility to identify a few additional state-specific projects, which are relevant for the economic development of the State.