Microcephaly is a medical condition which results in the brain not developing properly and the patient having a smaller than usual head. This could either be present congenitally or could develop in the initial years of life. People with this condition often have intellectual disability, poor speech, poor motor functions, seizures, abnormal features of the face, and dwarfism. This can be caused by several conditions which lead to abnormal brain growth, or could also be caused by syndromes related to chromosomal abnormalities. In one of the microcephalin genes, (a gene that is expressed during fetal brain development) homozygous mutation can take place which results in primary microcephaly.