NCERT Notes: Medieval History – Sultanate of Delhi – Tughluq Dynasty for UPSC IAS Exam Preparation and CBSE.
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik (1320 - 1325 A.D.)
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.
He is from a humble origin.
Domestic and Foreign Policies
Ghiyas-ud-din reinstated order in his empire.
He gave more importance to postal arrangements, judicial, irrigation, agriculture, and police.
In 1320A.D. he ascended the throne
He brought Bengal, Utkala or Orissa, and Warangal under his control
The Mongol leaders who invaded North India were seized and confined by him.
End of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluqrule
In 1325 A.D. Ghiyas-ud-din was crushed to death while attending an event for his victories in Bengal.
Junakhan, the crown prince succeeded him.
In 1325 A.D. Junakhan, the crown prince sworn the title Muhammad-bin-Tughluq.
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq stood upright for administrative and political unity of India.
In 1327 A.D. he captured Warangal.
To fill the empty treasury, he raised taxes in the Doab region.
Many people ran away to the forests to avoid heavy taxes due to which cultivation was neglected and severe food shortage occurred.
He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri to protect his capital and ordered the common people and government officials to shift to Devagiri, after many difficulties he ordered them to return to Delhi.
He introduced the copper currency system.
The value of coins dropped; hence he had to withdraw the copper token currency.
To conquer Khurasan , Iraq, and Tranoxiana he raised an army of 3, 70,000 men.
Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s national treasure had a great burden due to the policy of huge presents given to Tamashirin, the Mongol leader in order to avoid Mongol Invasion.
Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s domestic policies were good but due to the out of action measures they failed.
The decline of the Delhi Sultanate is claimed due to his makings of hasty decisions and out defective rules.
Firoz Tughluq (1 351-1 388 A.D.)
In 1351A.D. Firoz Tughluq was the son of of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq’s younger brother.
He succeeded the throne.
He withdrew all Taquavi (agricultural) loans granted by Mohammed-bin-Tughluq.
He raised the salary of the revenue officers.
He brought to an end to all unlawful and unjust taxes.
He collected four important taxes such as
Kharaj- 1/10 of the produce of the land
Khams- 1/5 of the warbooty
Zakat-Tax on Muslims for specific religious purposes
He constructed 150 wells, 100 bridges, and 50 dams, and also dug many irrigation canals.
He constructed towns like Firozabad Hissar, Jaunpur, and Fatehabad.
Firoz banned all kinds of damages and torture.
He levied Jizya on the Brahmans.
He established hospitals (Dar-ul-shafa), Marriage Bureau, (Diwani-i-kherat) and an Employment Bureau.
He also extablished Diwan-i-lstibqaq to give financial aid to the poor.
Firoz Tughluq surrounded Bengal in 1353 A.D. and 1359A.D.
He seized Jainagar.
He devastated the Jagannath Temple at Puri.
Firoz proved his prominence by
His generous measures and contributions to the affluence of the people.
Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi is an autobiography of Firoz Tughluq.
He patronized scholar Zia-ud-din Barani.
During his reign a number of Sanskrit books on medicine, science and arts were translated into Persian.
Kutab- Feroz Shahi – a book which dealt with Physics
Later Tughluqs - successors of Firoz
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah II
Abu Bakr Shah,
Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughluq
End of Tughlug Dynasty
The successors of Firoz were not very strong and powerful.
By the end of the 14th century, most of the territories became independent.
Only Punjab and Delhi remained under the Tughluqs.
Timur invasion took place during the Tughlug period.
Timur's Invasion (1398 A.D.)
The fabulous wealth of Hindustan attracted Timur the ruler of Samarqand.
During the period of Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughluq he invaded India.
In 1398 A.D. Timur, he captured Delhi and caused annihilation by pillaging and slaughtering people.