Topic of the Day: Soil Category: Geography
Today’s Topic of the Day is ‘Soil’ which is one of the topics in NCERT Geography textbook Class XI.
The topic of the Day (ToD) will help the aspirants to know the basic concepts and make their foundation strong while preparing for UPSC IAS Exam. Reading Topic of the Day religiously will mould the aspirants to prepare for Current affairs in a very effective way and make relevant current affairs notes. The section of Topic of the Day will also make easy for candidates in making short notes on certain topics.
- The soil is a thin layer of grainy material wrapping the surface of the earth.
- It is closely linked to the land.
- Landforms determine the type of soil.
Constituents in the soil
- The soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the Earth.
- This happens through the process of weathering.
- The appropriate combination of organic matter and minerals make the soil fertile.
Classification of soil
- There are different types of soil, classified on the basis of texture, structure, color, pH value, porosity.
Factors of soil formation
- The most important factors of soil formation are:
- Nature of the parent rock
- Climatic factors
- Role of organic material
- Time is taken for the composition of soil formation
Threats to soil
- Soil erosion and depletion are the major threats to the soil as a resource.
- Factors which lead to soil degradation are overgrazing, deforestation, overuse of chemical fertilizers or pesticides, landslides, and floods.
Soil conservation methods
- Contour barriers
- Rock dam
- Terrace farming
- Contour ploughing
- Shelter belts