GMAT Verbal Reading Comprehension

Syllabus for GMAT Exam

ObjectiveThe Reading Comprehension measures your ability to understand the passage and answer the questions.

The examiner often fill the passage with complex vocabulary. An untrained candidate may find it difficult and it would take a lot of time in understanding such passages. Usually we read essays to retain details and information while GMAT passages will make you confused with unnecessary information. Here, you need to learn the way to ace the GMAT exam.

There are 4 to 5 passages in GMAT exam, each with 1-6 questions. These passages can vary from 1-5 paragraphs in length. These passages can be academic or non-academic and usually taken from magazines, books, biographies and textbooks. The passage resembles the material that you must have read in your graduation school with complex sentence structure, advanced vocabulary and complicated ideas.


There are two major systems of criminal procedure in the modern world—the adversarial and the inquisitorial. The former is associated with common law tradition and the latter with civil law tradition. Both systems were historically preceded by the system of private vengeance in which the victim of a crime fashioned his own remedy and administered it privately, either personally or through an agent. The vengeance system was a system of self help, the essence of which was captured in the slogan “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” The modern adversarial system is only one historical step removed from the private vengeance system and still retains some of its characteristic features. Thus, for example, even though the right to institute criminal action has now been extended to all members of society and even though the police department has taken over the pretrial investigative functions on behalf of the prosecution, the adversarial system still leaves the defendant to conduct his own pretrial investigation. The trial is still viewed as a duel between two adversaries, refereed by a judge who, at the beginning of the trial has no knowledge of the investigative background of the case. In the final analysis the adversarial system of criminal procedure symbolizes and regularizes the punitive combat.

By contrast, the inquisitorial system begins historically where the adversarial system stopped its development. It is two historical steps removed from the system of private vengeance. Therefore, from the standpoint of legal anthropology, it is historically superior to the adversarial system. Under the inquisitorial system the public investigator has the duty to investigate not just on behalf of the prosecutor but also on behalf of the defendant. Additionally, the public prosecutor has the duty to present to the court not only evidence that may lead to the conviction of the defendant but also evidence that may lead to his exoneration. This system mandates that both parties permit full pretrial discovery of the evidence in their possession. Finally, in an effort to make the trial less like a duel between two adversaries, the inquisitorial system mandates that the judge take an active part in the conduct of the trial, with a role that is both directive and protective.

Fact-finding is at the heart of the inquisitorial system. This system operates on the philosophical premise that in a criminal case the crucial factor is not the legal rule but the facts of the case and that the goal of the entire procedure is to experimentally recreate for the court the commission of the alleged crime.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
    • explain why the inquisitorial system is the best system of criminal justice
    • explain how the adversarial and the inquisitorial systems of criminal justice both evolved from the system of private vengeance
    • show how the adversarial and inquisitorial systems of criminal justice can both complement and hinder each other’s development
    • show how the adversarial and inquisitorial systems of criminal justice are being combined into a new and better system
    • analyze two systems of criminal justice and deduce which one is better

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