Infrared spectroscopy is the most common detection tool that organic chemists use to determine functional groups. Infrared spectroscopy (abbreviated IR spectroscopy) provides the study of how a molecule deals with infrared light in the simplest terms.
Molecules containing carbon atoms covalently bonded to hydrogen atoms (C-H bonds) are organic compounds. This means that the presence of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms is common in all organic compounds. In addition, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements can contain numerous organic compounds.