Peroxide is a chemical compound where it comprises of two oxygen atoms that are linked by a single covalent bond. The oxygen atoms present in the peroxide ion have an oxidation state of -1. Most of the inorganic and organic peroxides are used as a bleaching agent. Peroxide has its application in the preparation of hydrogen peroxide.

Covalent bonds control Organic Peroxides. Inorganic peroxides are ionic. Peroxides are divided into two categories where one or two oxygen atoms are covalently linked to atoms excluding hydrogen. One among the two category includes ammonium peroxy disulfate and di-tert butyl. Cumene hydroperoxide categorizes Another category.

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen Peroxide is the simplest form of peroxide. It is unstable in the presence of a catalyst or a base and decomposes slowly. They are stored in a weakly acidic solution in a stabilizer due to its instability. They are used as a propellant in rocketry.

Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and hydrogen when it is thermodynamically unstable. As temperature increases, the rate of decomposition also increases. Various compounds are involved in the catalyzing decomposition. Some of them include transition metals ( silver and Manganese Dioxide) and their compounds.

ightarrow }2H_{2}O+O_{2}\)

They are found in various biological systems. In common they are found as a solution in water. Anthraquinone process is broadly used synthesis method for hydrogen peroxide. Percarbonates and Peroxodisulfate are peroxides of mineral acids that are obtained by anodic oxidation.

Examples of Hydrogen Peroxide

  • Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation


  • Brown Hydroboration – Follow up Reaction


  • Ozonolysis


Organic Peroxides

Organic Peroxides are organic compounds which consist of a functional group. They are divided into two classes namely organic hydroperoxides and peroxy acids. The second class is derived from alcohol and ethanol. Peroxy acids are acids that comprise an acidic – OOH group. The first class of Organic Peroxides is obtained from Carboxylic acid.

Organic Peroxides are used in the synthesis of lactones of cyclic ketones. They are used in the synthesis of epoxies. Dibenzoyl peroxide is used as a radical initiator.Peracetic acid is used widely in the food industry and as a disinfectant in the medical field.

Practise This Question

Only one type of hydrocarbon is formed by wurtz reaction of