According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in the absence of evolutionary forces, the gene pool of a population remains constant. The sum of allele frequencies remains 1. If in a diploid organism, p and q represent the frequency of allele A and allele a then (p+q)2 is 1 and that is expressed as p2+2pq+q2=1. Where p2 is the frequency of AA individuals, q2 is the frequency of aa individuals, and 2pq is the frequency of heterozygous individuals (Aa).
If the measured frequencies are different from the expected frequencies, then it indicates the evolutionary change.
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