Question

# (1) DEFINE THESE IN SHORT A. CHARGING BY INDUTION B. CHARGING BY CONDUTION C. COULOMB LAW D. ELECTRIC FIELD E. ELECTRIC FLUX F. ELECTRIC DIPOLE G. GAUSS LAW

Solution

## A. Charging by induction The process of charging the uncharged object by bringing another charged object near to it, but not touching it, is called charging by induction. B. Charging by conduction The process of charging the uncharged object by bringing it in contact with another charged object is called charging by conduction. A charged object has unequal number of negative (electrons) and positive charges (protons). Hence, when a charged object is brought in contact with the uncharged conductor, the electrons get transferred from charged object to the conductor. C. Coulomb's law states that the electrical force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of the quantity of charge on the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two objects. In equation form, Coulomb's law can be stated as  F =( k q1 q2 )  / d² D. The region around the electric charge in which the stress or electric force act is called an electric field or electrostatic field. If the magnitude of charge is large, then it may create a huge stress around the region. The electric field is represented by the symbol E. The SI unit of the electric field is newton per coulomb which is equal to volts per meter. E. Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area. Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going through a virtual surface.   Electric flux has SI units of volt metres (V m), or, equivalently, newton metres squared per coulomb (N m2 C−1). Thus, the SI base units of electric flux are kg·m3·s−3·A−1.     F. Electric Dipole Electric Dipole is defined as a couple of opposite charges q and –q, which are at 2a distance apart from each other. When we connect these two charges by a line, the line becomes responsible for the direction of the electric dipole in space. By default, the direction of the dipole is from negative charge –q to positive charge q. Also, the mid-point of q and –q is called Center of the Dipole. The magnitude of dipole will be p = 2aq G. Gauss's Law Gauss's law states that the net flux of an electric field through a closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge. Another statement of Gauss's law is that the net flux of an electric field through a surface divided by the enclosed charge is equal to a constant.​​​​​​

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