The correct option is B Only 1, 3 and 4
1. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis, bacteria that live in the mouth, nose, and throat. Many children who contract pertussis have coughing spells that last four to eight weeks.
2. Measles is a highly contagious viral disease, which affects mostly children. It is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons. There is no specific treatment for measles and most people recover within 2–3 weeks. However, particularly in malnourished children and people with reduced immunity; measles can cause serious complications, including blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhoea, ear infection and pneumonia. Measles can be prevented by immunization.
3. Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease. In communities where filariasis is transmitted, all ages are affected. While the infection may be acquired during childhood its visible manifestations may occur later in life, causing temporary or permanent disability. The disease is caused by three species of thread-like nematode worms. Male worms are about 3–4 centimetres in length, and female worms 8–10 centimetres. The male and female worms together form “nests” in the human lymphatic system, the network of nodes and vessels that maintain the delicate fluid balance between blood and body tissues. The lymphatic system is an essential component of the body’s immune system.
4. Under the Global Vaccine Action Plan, measles and rubella are targeted for elimination in 5 WHO Regions by 2020. WHO is the lead technical agency responsible for coordination of immunization and surveillance activities supporting all countries to achieve this goal. Transmitted in airborne droplets when infected people sneeze or cough, rubella is an acute, usually mild viral disease traditionally affecting susceptible children and young adults worldwide. Rubella infection just before conception and in early pregnancy may result in miscarriage, foetal death or congenital defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The highest risk of CRS is found in countries with high rates of susceptibility to rubella among women of childbearing age.