Pulse is measured from
The 3 variables which measure the efficiency of cardiac cycle and the heart’s pumping activity are _______.
Blood pressure, pulse, cardiac output.
Systole, diastole, stroke volume.
Isovolumetric contraction, isovolumetric relaxation, ejection.
Sinoatrial node, bundle of his, atrioventricular node.
A normal ECG has the readings as ;
1. Repolarization, 2. Q, 3.R, 4. Repolarization, 5.Depolarization
1.Depolarization, 2. R, 3.Q, 4. Repolarization, 5. Repolarization
1.Depolarization, 2. Q, 3. R, 4.Depolarization, 5. Repolarization
1. Repolarization, 2.Q, 3. R, 4. Depolarization, 5. Depolarization
Stroke volume is the amount of blood the left ventricle pumps out in one cardiac cycle. This is around 70ml. Now, to get the cardiac output, we have to multiply (i)__ with the normal heart rate of (ii)__ /min and we get (iii)__ ml/min. This means that in one minute, each ventricle of a normal heart pumps about (iv)__ litres of blood out.
(i) Stroke volume, (ii) 72, (iii) 5, 040, (iv) 5
(i) Volume of the heart, (ii) 72, (iii)3, 720, (iv) 3
(i) Total volume, (ii) 82, (iii)8, 200, (iv) 8
(i) Volume of the ventricles, (ii) 72, (iii)2, 600, (iv) 2
Athletes trained for endurance, such as swimmers and marathon runners, have a higher stroke volume at rest mainly because they have
More sympathetic stimulation from the SA node
Increased heart rate
Decreased end-diastolic volume
ECG depicts the depolarisation and repolarisation processes during the cardiac cycle. In the ECG of a normal healthy individual one of the following waves is not represented.
Depolarisation of ventricles
Depolarisation of atria
Repolarisation of atria
Repolarisation of ventricles
- Peak P and peak R together - Systolic and diastolic blood pressures
- Complex QRS - one complete pulse
- Peak T - Initiation of total cardiac contraction
- Peak P - initiation of left atrial contraction only
Which of the component of an ECG is correctly matched below ?
Peak P and R together - systolic and diastolic blood pressures
QRS - one complete pulse
Peak P - initiation of left atrial contraction only.
Peak T - initiation of total cardiac contraction
The “lub” sound (first heart sound) is caused by the
Filling of the ventricles
Closing of the av valves
Closing of semilunar valves
Which of the following is not correctly matched?
Systemic circulation - generates efficient waveforms
Tachycardia - Heart rate is 70-75 beats
Bradycardia - Heart rate falls below 60 beats
Atrial fibrillation - generates inefficient waveforms