  Question

(a) Differentiate between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. (b) Which of the two, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, is made use of : (i) for the production of electricity ? (ii) for making a hydrogen bomb ? (c) Which produces more energy : nuclear fusion or nuclear fission ? (d) Calculate the energy released in joules when 5 g of a material is completely convened into energy during a nuclear reaction. (e) How much is this energy in MeV ? (Speed of light $$= 3 \times 10^8 m/s$$)

Solution

Nuclear FissionNuclear FissionFusion Natural occurrence of the process:Fission reaction does not normally occur in nature.Fusion occurs In stars. stch as the sun.Byproducts of the reaction: Fission produces many highly radioactive particles.Few radioactive particles are produced by fusion reaction, but if a fission 'trigger is used radioactive particles will resat from that.Energy Ratics:The energy released by fission is a million times greater than that released In cherrical reactions: but lower than the energy released by nuclear fusion.The energy released by fusion is three to four times greater than the energy released by fission.Nuclear weapon:One class of nuclear weapon is a fission bomb. also known m an atomic bomb co atom bomb.One dass of nuclear weapon Is the hydrogen bomb. which uses a fission reaction to 'trigger' a fusion reaction. Energy requirement:Takes little energy to split two atoms in a fission reaction.Extremely high energy Is required to be ng two or more protons dose enough that nuclear forces overcome their electrostatic repulsio.(b) (i) Nuclear fission   (ii) Nuclear fusion (c) Nuclear fusion (d) Mass $$m-5_g =.00\,5kg$$. Speed of light. $$c= 3\times 10^8 \,m/s$$ We know that  $$E =mc^2$$ $$E= 0.005\times (3\times 10^8)^2$$ $$E=4.5\times 10^{14} J$$ (e) $$1 MeV = 1.602 \times 10^{-13} J$$$$1 J = \dfrac {1}{1.602 \times 110^{-13}}MeV$$$$4/.5 \times 10^{14} J = \dfrac {4.5 \times 10^{14}}{1.602 \times 110^{-13}} = 2.808 \times 10^{27}MeV$$Physics

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