Question

# $\left(\mathrm{a}\right)$Electropositive nature of the element(s) increases down the group and decreases across the period $\left(\mathrm{b}\right)$Electronegativity of the element decreases down the group and increases across the period $\left(\mathrm{c}\right)$Atomic size increases down the group and decreases across a period (left to right) $\left(\mathrm{d}\right)$ Metallic character increases down the group and decreases across a period. Based on the above trends of the periodic table, answer the following about the elements with atomic numbers $3$ to $9$. Name the element which shows maximum valency.

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Solution

## Valency:The valency of an atom refers to its capability to combine with other atoms. The valency of an element determines the number of bonds that an atom can make as part of a complex.An atom must receive, lose, or share a specified number of electrons from its outermost orbit in order to achieve a complete octet. As a result, an atom's capacity is defined as the total amount of electrons obtained, lost, or shared by it to complete its octet arrangement in the outermost atom.The outermost orbit of noble gases is completely filled, making them the least reactive. The ability of other elements to obtain noble gas configuration, on the other hand, determines their reactivity. It can also be used to figure out an atom's valency.The element with an atomic number $6$i.e. Carbon has the highest valency among these. The electronic configuration of carbon is $1{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{p}}^{2}$. The number of electrons required to complete the octet of p-orbital requires four electrons. Therefore, the valency of carbon$=4$.Therefore, the element with an atomic number $6$ i.e. carbon has maximum valency.

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