Question

# A transistor in a common Emitter configuration is used as a switch, and it is in the ON position. Find the output voltage ${V}_{out}$.

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Solution

## This is the diagram of the transistor in common emitter mode.In the switch ON case transistor is in saturation mode.Maximum collector current flows (${I}_{c}=\frac{{V}_{cc}}{{R}_{L}}$ ). ${V}_{CE}=0$ ( ideal saturation ). Transistor operates as a “closed switch”In the cutoff region the transistor is fully off. From the diagram on the right side we can see that ${V}_{out}$ is connected to earth.${V}_{out}={V}_{CE}=0$So, ${V}_{out}$ is equal to zero.Hence, ${V}_{out}=0$.

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