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Question

(a) What is the nature of charge on cathode rays?

(b) State the properties of cathode rays.


Solution

(a) Cathode rays are negatively charged as they consist of negatively charged particles called electrons.
 

(b) Properties of cathode rays:

  • They travel from the cathode to the anode in straight lines.
  • They cause a greenish yellow fluorescence on a soda-glass screen placed in the tube.
  • They are affected by an electric field, i.e. they are inflected towards the positive field and deflected from the negative field. This shows that they carry a negative charge.
  • When a beam of cathode rays is made to fall upon hard metallic targets like tungsten, X rays are produced.
  • They penetrate matter.
  • They cause ionisation of the gas through which they pass.
  • The ratio of the charge (s) to mass (m) of the particles constituting cathode rays remains the same (e/m = 1.76× 1011coulomb/kg irrespective of the nature of the gas taken and of the metal forming the cathode.
  • They produce the shadow of an opaque object placed in their path and make a light paddle wheel rotate.

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