The correct option is D
All the above
The correct option is (d).
Explanation of the correct option:
- It is an asexual reproductive process in the place of normal sexual processes that involves reduction division and fertilization.
- Apomixis is widely distributed among higher plants.
- More than 300 species belonging to 35 families are apomictic.
- It is most common in Gramineae, Compositae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae.
- Among the major cereals maize, wheat, and pearl millet have apomictic relatives.
- Different types of apomixis are
- Diplospory – The unreduced embryo sac is derived from the megaspore mother cell either directly by mitotic division or by aborted meiotic events.
- Apospory – The nuclear cells that give rise to the apomictic embryo sac, termed aposporos initials, are distinct from the ameiotic megasporocyte.
- Adventitious Embryony – In this process, embryos initiate parthenogenetically outside of an embryo sac structure.
- Recurrent apomixis – In recurrent apomixis, both the egg-cell and embryo are diploid and the embryo sac is developed from the megaspore mother cell.
- Non – recurrent apomixis – In non-recurrent apomixis, both the egg-cell and embryo are haploid and embryo is developed directly from an egg-cell without fertilization.
- Vegetative apomixis – In this apomixis type, vegetative bulbils or buds are produced in the inflorescence instead of flowers.
Final answer: Agamospermy includes all the above.