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Question

Arrange the following:

(i) In decreasing order of the pKbvalues:

C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, (C2H5)2NH and C6H5NH2

(ii) In increasing order of basic strength:

C6H5NH2, C6H5N(CH3)2, (C2H5)2NH and CH3NH2

(iii) In increasing order of basic strength:

(a) Aniline, p-nitroaniline and p-toluidine

(b) C6H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, C6H5CH2NH2.

(iv) In decreasing order of basic strength in gas phase:

C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, (C2H5)3N and NH3

(v) In increasing order of boiling point:

C2H5OH, (CH3)2NH, C2H5NH2

(vi) In increasing order of solubility in water:

C6H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, C2H5NH2.


Solution

(i) In C2H5NH2, only one −C2H5 group is present while in (C2H5)2NH, two −C2H5 groups are present. Thus, the +I effect is more in (C2H5)2NH than in C2H5NH2. Therefore, the electron density over the N-atom is more in (C2H5)2NH than in C2H5NH2. Hence, (C2H5)2NH is more basic than C2H5NH2.

Also, both C6H5NHCH3 and C6H5NH2 are less basic than (C2H5)2NH and C2H5NH2 due to the delocalization of the lone pair in the former two. Further, among C6H5NHCH3 and C6H5NH2, the former will be more basic due to the +T effect of −CH3 group. Hence, the order of increasing basicity of the given compounds is as follows:

C6H5NH2 < C6H5NHCH3 < C2H5NH2 < (C2H5)2NH

We know that the higher the basic strength, the lower is the pKb values.

C6H5NH2 > C6H5NHCH3 > C2H5NH2 > (C2H5)2NH

(ii) C6H5N(CH3)2 is more basic than C6H5NH2 due to the presence of the +I effect of two −CH3 groups in C6H5N(CH3)2. Further, CH3NH2 contains one −CH3 group while (C2H5)2NH contains two −C2H5 groups. Thus, (C2H5)2 NH is more basic than C2H5NH2.

Now, C6H5N(CH3)2 is less basic than CH3NH2 because of the−R effect of −C6H5 group.

Hence, the increasing order of the basic strengths of the given compounds is as follows:

C6H5NH2 < C6H5N(CH3)2 < CH3NH2 < (C2H5)2NH

(iii) (a)

In p-toluidine, the presence of electron-donating −CH3 group increases the electron density on the N-atom.

Thus, p-toluidine is more basic than aniline.

On the other hand, the presence of electron-withdrawing

−NO2 group decreases the electron density over the N−atom in p-nitroaniline. Thus, p-nitroaniline is less basic than aniline.

Hence, the increasing order of the basic strengths of the given compounds is as follows:

p-Nitroaniline < Aniline < p-Toluidine

(b) C6H5NHCH3 is more basic than C6H5NH2 due to the presence of electron-donating −CH3 group in C6H5NHCH3.

Again, in C6H5NHCH3, −C6H5 group is directly attached to the N-atom. However, it is not so in C6H5CH2NH2. Thus, in C6H5NHCH3, the −R effect of −C6H5 group decreases the electron density over the N-atom. Therefore, C6H5CH2NH2 is more basic than C6H5NHCH3.

Hence, the increasing order of the basic strengths of the given compounds is as follows:

C6H5NH2 < C6H5NHCH3 < C6H5CH2NH2.

(iv) In the gas phase, there is no solvation effect. As a result, the basic strength mainly depends upon the +I effect. The higher the +I effect, the stronger is the base. Also, the greater the number of alkyl groups, the higher is the +I effect. Therefore, the given compounds can be arranged in the decreasing order of their basic strengths in the gas phase as follows:

(C2H5)3N > (C2H5)2NH > C2H5NH2 > NH3

(v) The boiling points of compounds depend on the extent of H-bonding present in that compound. The more extensive the H-bonding in the compound, the higher is the boiling point. (CH3)2NH contains only one H−atom whereas C2H5NH2 contains two H-atoms. Then, C2H5NH2 undergoes more extensive H-bonding than (CH3)2NH. Hence, the boiling point of C2H5NH2 is higher than that of (CH3)2NH.

Further, O is more electronegative than N. Thus, C2H5OH forms stronger H−bonds than C2H5NH2. As a result, the boiling point of C2H5OH is higher than that of C2H5NH2 and (CH3)2NH.

Now, the given compounds can be arranged in the increasing order of their boiling points as follows:

(CH3)2NH < C2H5NH2 < C2H5OH

(vi) The more extensive the H−bonding, the higher is the solubility. C2H5NH2 contains two H-atoms whereas (C2H5)2NH contains only one H-atom. Thus, C2H5NH2 undergoes more extensive H−bonding than (C2H5)2NH. Hence, the solubility in water of C2H5NH2 is more than that of (C2H5)2NH.

Further, the solubility of amines decreases with increase in the molecular mass. This is because the molecular mass of amines increases with an increase in the size of the hydrophobic part. The molecular mass of C6H5NH2 is greater than that of C2H5NH2 and (C2H5)2NH.

Hence, the increasing order of their solubility in water is as follows:

C6H5NH2 < (C2H5)2NH < C2H5NH2


Chemistry
Part - II
Standard XII

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