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Question

Aryl halides are extremely less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions. Give any two reasons.


Solution

Aryl halides are extremely less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions.  This is due to following reasons
1) Conjugation between the lone pair of electrons (on halogen atom ) and pi electrons ( of benzene ring).
2) Double bond character of $$C-X$$ bond due to resonance.
3) The C atom of $$C-X$$ bond is $$sp^2$$ hybridised which results in greater s character and shorter bond length. $$C-X$$ bond is stronger and its cleavage requires greater energy.

Chemistry

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