Can you please provide me with all the important questions of control and coordination


1) Why is control and coordination system necessary in organisms?
Answer All organisms have mechanisms to control their functions. However, in higher organisms the system required is more complex as the individual is a complex multicellular organism with the parts separated by greater distance.
2) What is homeostasis?
Answer Homeostasis comes from two words- ‘homeo’ meaning same and ‘stasis’ meaning steady state within the body
3 )Give examples of some of the movements shown by plants
Answer Movements as in animals is absent in plants except in cases of sperm cells of ferns and mosses swimming towards the egg. In plants, movement is association with the growth of the plants. For example, the shoot system moves towards sunlight and the root system towards earth.
4 )What are growth regulators?
Answer Growth regulators are the chemicals that either promote or inhibit growth of the plants, their development and their responses to the environment. They are also called the phytohormones.
5) What are the stages of growth in plants?
Answer  Growth in plants has three stages: Cell division, Cell enlargement, Cell differentiation.
6 )Name the different phytohormones.
Answer The different phytohormones are auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscissic acid
7) What are auxins?
Answer  Auxins are phytohormones that are concerned with shoot and root elongation, maintaining dormancy and apical dominance

8) Give four major functions of auxins.
Answer   Four major functions of auxins are:
  1. Elongation of stem and root: In high concentrations it causes stem elongation ad in low concentration, it causes root elongation.
  2. Apical dominance: As long as the apical buds produce auxins, the lateral buds are not allowed to grow.
  3. Prevention of abscission: As long as the leaves and fruits produce auxin, they remain attached to the plant. If they stop producing auxins, they fall.
  4. Parthenocarpy: Auxins induce the ovaries to produce fruits without fertilization and this is called Parthenocarpy. It results in seedless fruits. For example, papaya, orange, etc
9 )What are gibberellins and where are they synthesized?
Answer   Gibberellins are plants hormones that are mainly responsible for cell elongation. They are synthesized in embryos, young leaves, root tips, buds and seeds.
10)What is the most important commercial application of gibberellins?
Answer   GA-3 (gibberellic acid), a gibberellin that has been studied the most, causes the barley seeds to produce the starch- digesting enzymes like maltase, amylase. This process is called malting. It is used in the brewing industry.
11)What are cytokinins? Give an example.
Answer   They are phytohormones that induce cell division even in mature tissues. They were named ‘cytokinins’ as the cell division is also called cytokinesis. For example: zeatin, a cytokinin present in maize grains.
12 )Give one use of cytokinins in tissue culture.
Answer   Cytokinins are used in tissue culture to induce cell division in mature tissues.
13 )Name the phytohormone that causes ripening of fruits. Give one more function of this phytohormone.
Answer  The growth regulator that causes ripening is ethylene. It also promotes flowering.
14 )Name a growth inhibitor. Give two o its functions. 
Answer  Abscisic acid is a growth inhibitor. Its functions are:
  1. It causes bud and seed dormancy
  2. It results in abscission of leaves and fruits
    15 )What are the control and coordination mechanisms developed in animals?
Answer   The two control and coordination mechanisms developed in animals are: Nervous system, Endocrine system
16 )How does the conduction of messages take place in?
(i) Nervous system    
(ii) Endocrine system

Nervous system

The conduction in nervous system takes place with the help of electrical impulses travelling along the nerves

Endocrine system

The conduction in endocrine system takes place by the hormones being circulated in blood.

17) What are the functions carried out by the nervous system in human beings?
Answer   The functions carried out by the nervous system in human beings are:


It perceives the changes around us through our senses


It controls and coordinates all the activities of the muscles in response to the changes outside.


It also maintains the internal environment of the body by coordinating the functions of the various internal organs and the involuntary muscles


It stores the previous experiences as memory that helps to think and analyses our reactions


It conducts messages between different parts of the body.

18 )What are the units of nervous system?
Answer   The units of nervous system are specialized cells called the neurons.
19 )What is an impulse?
Answer   An impulse is an electrical disturbance.


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