Question

# Copper forms two Chlorides $\mathrm{CuCl}$ and ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$ (1) Identify the Copper ions in these compounds? (2) What is the valency of Copper in each of these compounds? (3) By writing the sub-shell electronic configuration of Copper, find out a sub-shells from which the electrons are lost to form these ions. (4) Write the period and group to which Copper belongs. (Hint: Atomic number of Copper $=29$)

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Solution

## Given:Copper forms two Chlorides $\mathrm{CuCl}$ and ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$ The atomic number of Copper $=29$The Copper ions in the $\mathrm{CuCl}$ and ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$ compounds:The total charge on the compound $\mathrm{CuCl}=0$ and the number of Chlorine atoms is 1 for which the general valency is $-1.$ Hence, the charge of Copper in the $\mathrm{CuCl}$ compound can be calculated as : $\mathrm{x}+\left(-1\right)=0\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}⇒\mathrm{x}=+1$Similarly, the total charge on ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$$=0$ and the number of chlorine atoms is 2 for which the general valency is $-1.$So the charge of Copper in the ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$ compound can be calculated as : $\mathrm{x}+\left(-1\right)×2=0\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}⇒\mathrm{x}=+2$Hence, the ions formed for compounds $\mathrm{CuCl}$ and ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$ are ${\mathrm{Cu}}^{+}\left(\mathrm{Cuprous}\right)\mathrm{and}{\mathrm{Cu}}^{2+}\left(\mathrm{Cupric}\right)$respectively.The valency of copper in each of these compounds:As the central metal atom, Copper is surrounded by one Chlorine atom, hence the valence of $\mathrm{CuCl}$ $=1$Also, as the central metal atom, Copper is surrounded by two Chlorine atoms, hence the valence of ${\mathrm{CuCl}}_{2}$$=2$Sub-shells from which the electrons are lost to form these ions:Copper has $29$electrons in its neutral form and has the d subshell electrons. The electronic configuration of copper is given as : $1{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{p}}^{6}3{\mathrm{s}}^{2}3{\mathrm{p}}^{6}3{\mathrm{d}}^{10}4{\mathrm{s}}^{1}$.Here the Configuration ${\mathrm{Cu}}^{+}$ ion is given as : $1{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{p}}^{6}3{\mathrm{s}}^{2}3{\mathrm{p}}^{6}3{\mathrm{d}}^{10}$, which suggests the electrons are lost from the $4\mathrm{s}$ subshell.Similarly, the configuration ${\mathrm{Cu}}^{+2}$ ion is $1{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{s}}^{2}2{\mathrm{p}}^{6}3{\mathrm{s}}^{2}3{\mathrm{p}}^{6}3{\mathrm{d}}^{9}$ which suggests the electrons are lost from the $3\mathrm{d}$ subshell.The period and group to which copper belongs:Copper belongs to the fourth period.And it also belongs to the eleventh group.

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