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Copper forms two Chlorides CuCl and CuCl2 (1) Identify the Copper ions in these compounds? (2) What is the valency of Copper in each of these compounds? (3) By writing the sub-shell electronic configuration of Copper, find out a sub-shells from which the electrons are lost to form these ions. (4) Write the period and group to which Copper belongs. (Hint: Atomic number of Copper =29)


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Solution

Given:

  • Copper forms two Chlorides CuCl and CuCl2
  • The atomic number of Copper =29

The Copper ions in the CuCl and CuCl2 compounds:

  • The total charge on the compound CuCl=0 and the number of Chlorine atoms is 1 for which the general valency is -1.
  • Hence, the charge of Copper in the CuCl compound can be calculated as :

x+(-1)=0x=+1

  • Similarly, the total charge on CuCl2=0 and the number of chlorine atoms is 2 for which the general valency is -1.
  • So the charge of Copper in the CuCl2 compound can be calculated as :

x+(-1)×2=0x=+2

  • Hence, the ions formed for compounds CuCl and CuCl2 are Cu+(Cuprous)andCu2+(Cupric)respectively.

The valency of copper in each of these compounds:

  • As the central metal atom, Copper is surrounded by one Chlorine atom, hence the valence of CuCl =1
  • Also, as the central metal atom, Copper is surrounded by two Chlorine atoms, hence the valence of CuCl2=2

Sub-shells from which the electrons are lost to form these ions:

  • Copper has 29electrons in its neutral form and has the d subshell electrons.
  • The electronic configuration of copper is given as : 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1.
  • Here the Configuration Cu+ ion is given as : 1s22s22p63s23p63d10, which suggests the electrons are lost from the 4s subshell.
  • Similarly, the configuration Cu+2 ion is 1s22s22p63s23p63d9 which suggests the electrons are lost from the 3d subshell.

The period and group to which copper belongs:

  • Copper belongs to the fourth period.
  • And it also belongs to the eleventh group.

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