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Question

Define the following terms:
(i) Mole fraction 
(ii) Molality 
(iii) Molarity 
(iv) Mass percentage.


Solution

(i) Mole fraction
It is the ratio of the number of moles of a particular component to the total number of moles of all the components in the mixture. It is denoted by symbol $$\chi$$.

(ii) Molality
It is the number of moles of the solute per kilogram of the solvent. It is the ratio of the number of moles of solute to the mass of solvent in kg.

 (iii) Molarity
It is the number of moles of solute per litre of the solution. It is the ratio of the number of moles of solute to the volume of solution in litre.

(iv) Mass percentage
The mass percentage is one way of representing the concentration of an element in a compound or a component in a mixture. The mass percentage is calculated as the mass of a component divided by the total mass of the mixture, multiplied by 100%.

Chemistry
NCERT
Standard XII

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