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Question

Describe the structure of a human kidney with the help of a labelled diagram.
 


Solution

Human kidney is reddish-brown bean-shaped structures situated between the last thoracic and third lumbar vertebra close to the dorsal inner wall of the abdominal cavity.
Each kidney of an adult human measures 10-12 cm in length 5-7 cm in width, 2-3 cm in thickness with an average weight of 120-170 gm.
The kidney is covered by a fibrous connective tissue, the renal capsula, Which protect the kidney Internally, It consists of the outer dark cortex and an inner light medulla, both containing nephron (structural and functional units of the kidney.
The renal cortex is granular in appearance and contains the loop of Henle, collecting ducts and tubules and ducts of Bellini
Medulla is divided into conical masses, the medullary pyramids which further from papillae. The papillae form calyces, which join to renal pelvis leading to the ureter. Between the medullary pyramids, cortex extends into the medulla and forms renal columns which are called as the column of Bertini


Biology
NCERT Exemplar
Standard XI

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