Directions: The following items consists of two statements; one labelled as 'Assertion (A)' and the other as 'Reason (R)'. You are to examine these two statements carefully and select the answers to these items using the codes given below:
(a) both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Assertion (A): In box shear test, the failure plane is predetermined and is horizontal.
Reason (R): The shear stress is applied in the vertical direction