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Question

Explain Doppler effect in sound. State any two applications of Doppler effect.


Solution

When there is a relative motion between a source and an observer there is the apparent change in frequency of a sound emitted by the source as heard by the observer. This phenomenon is called the Doppler effect.

The formula for apparent frequency can be given as:-
$$f'=\dfrac{(v\pm v_0)}{(v\pm v_s)}f$$

Here, $$f$$ is actual frequency emitted by the source, $$f'$$  is observed/apparent frequency, $$v$$ velocity of sound in the medium.

$$v_0$$ is the velocity of the observer, $$(+ve)$$ for an observer moving towards source, $$(-ve)$$ for observed moving away from sources.

$$v_s$$ is the velocity of the source, $$(+ve)$$ for source moving away from observer $$(-ve)$$ for source moving towards the observer.

Two applications of the Doppler effect are:-
1) Used in sonography- Ultrasonic waves reflected from body tissues can give information about the rate of flow of various fluids including blood.
2) Handheld radar guns used by police to check for speeding vechicles.

Physics

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