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Question

Explain, why an organic liquid vaporises at a temperature below its boiling point in its steam distillation ?


Solution

During steam distillation, the organic liquid starts to boil when the sum of vapour pressure due to the organic liquid ($$p1$$) and the vapour pressure due to water ($$p2$$) is equal to atmospheric pressure ($$p$$).
$$\displaystyle p=p1 + p2 $$
As $$\displaystyle p1 < p2 $$, the liquid vapourises at temperature lower than its boiling point.

Chemistry
NCERT
Standard XI

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