(i) Forests are the natural recycling factories. Forests maintain a network of food chains. All animals whether herbivores, carnivores or omnivores depend ultimately on plants for food. (ii) Dead remains of animals and plants are converted into humus by decomposers. Humus supplies nutrients back into the soil, which are consumed by the plants to start a new food chain. Whatever is produced in the forest is ultimately utilised by different components of the forest.
(iii) Even the animal droppings are not a waste. They supply nutrients for the growth of seedlings.